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Calivil Formation STRATNO: 3322
Current: Yes Rank: Formation, beds Status: Formal State(s): NSW , SA , VIC
Category: Other new published name Usage: Defined Definition Card: No
Originator: Entry date: 01-JAN-88Last Update: 20-AUG-18
Replaced by: Previously known as: Calivil Sand
Description: River valley deposits; interbedded clay, silty clay, silt and subangular to subrounded fine to coarse-grained quartz sand, reef quartz and metasediment gravel, minor ligneous clay; silicified and ferruginised duricrust common.
Comments: Originally Calivil Formation (Macumber 1973), modified to Calivil Sand (Lawrence 1975); reverted to Calivil Formation (Tickell and Humphreys 1980) see 61185. Age variably interpreted as anywhere from Eocene to Pliocene, depending on location of study. Formerly included in Wunghnu Group, now advised this is a stand-alone unit (per email, Fons Vandenberg 10/10/08) - "the reason being that most of its distribution is not associated with anything" and it simply "records the sea-level high during the deposition of the Murray Group". Included in Loddon River Group in 2006 - but not used by GSV. Also see informal Calivil-Renmark Formation. Distribution modified in 2009.
Geological province: Murray Basin
Type state: VICReference section type:
Maximum thickness: 65mMinimum thickness:
Unit Age Event: deposition
Top of unit -
Minimum age: Pliocene Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method: inferred, overlying unit
Maximum age: Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Base of unit -
Minimum age: Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Maximum age: Eocene Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method: inferred, biostratigraphic correlation

Stratigraphic Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status

Chemical Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status


Related units: Relationship: Contact Type:
Shepparton Formation overlies Calivil Formation unconformity
Newer Volcanics overlies Calivil Formation
Parilla Sand overlies Calivil Formation
Olney Formation underlies Calivil Formation disconformity
Renmark Group underlies Calivil Formation disconformity
Urana Formation underlies Calivil Formation unconformity
Castlemaine Group underlies Calivil Formation
Loxton Sand is interbedded with Calivil Formation
Murray Group is equivalent to Calivil Formation
Geera Clay is equivalent to Calivil Formation
White Hills Gravel underlies Calivil Formation nonconformity
Sandringham Sandstone overlies Calivil Formation
First Reference:
REFID: 31951 Macumber, P.G., 1973, Progress report on the groundwater survey of the Avoca & Loddon Valleys., Victoria. Department of Mines. Groundwater Investigation Program. Report, 1972, p7

Definition Reference:
REFID: 42966 Brown, C.M., Stephenson, A.E., 1991, Geology of the Murray Basin, Southeastern Australia., Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia. Bulletin, 235, 430pp

Use on maps:
REFID: 23252 Cameron, R.G., 1997, Booligal 1:250 000 geological sheet, SI55-5, Geological Survey of New South Wales, 1v, Map
REFID: 23300 Taylor, D.H., Simons, B.A., 2000, Waubra 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, Map - 7623-3, Map Legend
REFID: 23302 Wohlt, K.E., Simons, B.A., 2000, Campbelltown 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, Map - 7623-1, Map Legend
REFID: 23303 Taylor, D.H., 2000, Creswick 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, Map - 7623-2, Map Legend
REFID: 23304 Wohlt, K.E., Taylor, D.H., Simons, B.A., Magart, A.P.M., 2000, Maryborough 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, Map - 7623-4, Map Legend
REFID: 24328 Slater, K.R., 2001, Bendigo, Victoria: Geophysical Map Sheet 1:250 000 geological interpretation of the geophysical features, Edition 1, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 24329 Edwards, J., Slater, K.R., 2001, Bendigo, Victoria: 1:250 000 geological map, Edition 3, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 24384 Willman, C.E., Radojkovic, A.M., 2002, Malmsbury 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 24385 Osborne, C.R., Bibby, L.M., Willman, C.E., Maher, S., Hollis, J.D., 2002, Daylesford 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 24386 Osborne, C.R., Radojkovic, A.M., 2002, Trentham 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 24387 Bibby, L.M., Willman, C.E., 2002, Castlemaine 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 24388 Haydon, S.J., Allen, R.J., 2002, Castlemaine 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map Legend
REFID: 24440 Kotsonis, A., 2003, Bendigo 1:100 000 regolith - landform map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v., Map
REFID: 42455 Tickell, S.J., 1989, Shepparton 7925 Zone 55. 1:100 000 geological map series., Victoria. Department of Industry, Technology and Resources, 1v, Map
REFID: 43198 Willman, C.E., 1994, Castlemaine goldfield - Fryers Creek 1:10 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 43199 Willman, C.E., 1994, Castlemaine goldfield - Castlemaine-Chewton 1:10 000 geological map., Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 43260 Cayley, R.A., 1995, Beaufort 1:100 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 43261 Cherry, D.P., Wilkinson, H.E., King, R.L., Malone, M P., Willman, C.E., Byrne, D.R., 1995, Bendigo and part of Mitiamo 1:100 000 geological map. Prelim Ed., Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 44188 Cameron, R.G., 1996, Pooncarie 1:250 000 geological map series sheet SI54-8., Geological Survey of New South Wales, 1v, Map
REFID: 44931 Cayley, R.A., Taylor, D.H., 1997, Grampians Special 1:250 000 map. Geological interpretation of geophysical features., Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map Legend
REFID: 60454 Cayley, R.A., Taylor, D.H., 2000, Ararat 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60456 Taylor, D.H., Cayley, R.A., 2000, Watgania 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60457 Cayley, R.A., Taylor, D.H., 2000, Stawell and part of Callawadda 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 60458 Cayley, R.A., Taylor, D.H., 2000, Fyans and part of Glenorchy 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 60459 Cayley, R.A., Taylor , D.H., 2000, Ararat and part of Rupanyup 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 60461 Edwards, J., Moore, D.H., Lynn, S., 2001, Wedderburn 1:100 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 60462 Moore, D.H., 2001, Wedderburn 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 60492 Bibby, L.M., Moore, D.H., 1998, Charlton 1:100 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60529 Edwards, J., 1997, Murchison, Victoria 1:50 000 geological map sheet 7924-4, Zone 55 - Edition 1, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60581 Taylor, D.H., 1996, Ballarat 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60582 Taylor, D.H., 1996, Mercer 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60583 Taylor, D.H., 1996, Linton 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria., 1v, Map
REFID: 60584 Taylor, D.H., 1996, Rokewood 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60591 Wohlt, K.E., Edwards, J., 1999, Heathcote 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60592 Edwards, J., Wohlt, K.E., 1999, Costerfield and part of Pyalong 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60593 Wohlt, K.E., Edwards, J., 1999, Avonmore 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60595 Edwards, J., Wohlt, K.E., 1999, Colbinabbin 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60596 Wohlt, K.E., Edwards, J., 1999, Tongala 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 60597 Slater, K.R., 1999, Heathcote and parts of Woodend and Echuca 1:100 000 map. Geological interpretation of geophysical features, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, Map
REFID: 61174 VandenBerg, A.H.M., Morand, V.J., Quinn, C., Edwards, J., Wohlt, K.E., 2004, Myrtleford 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61175 VandenBerg, A.H.M., Morand, V.J., 2004, Bright 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61176 VandenBerg, A.H.M., Simons, B.A., Quinn, C., Willman, C.E., Edwards, J., Morand, V.J., 2004, Dandongadale 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61177 VandenBerg, A.H.M., Simons, B.A., Quinn, C., Willman, C.E., 2004, Buffalo 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61701 Edwards, J., 1997, Arcadia 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61702 Edwards, J., 1997, Longwood and part of Yea 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 61703 Edwards, J., Wohlt, K.E., 1997, Nagambie and part of Tallarook 1:50 000 geological map, Geological Survey of Victoria, 1v, map
REFID: 62405 Meakin, N.S., Colquhoun, G.P., Cameron, R.G., Hendrickx, M.A., Vassallo, J.J., Forster, D.B., 2006, CARGELLIGO 1:250 000 geological sheet, SI/55-6 - 3rd edition, Geological Survey of New South Wales, 1v, Map
REFID: 64568 Meakin, N.S., Colquhoun, G.P., Cameron, R.G., 2008, TULLIBIGEAL 1:100 000 Geological Sheet 8231, Geological Survey of New South Wales, 1v, Map
REFID: 69162 Colquhoun, G.P., Meakin, N.S., Cameron, R.G., 2008, Merriwagga 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8030, Geological Survey of New South Wales, map
REFID: 69163 Cameron, R.G., Colquhoun, G.P., Meakin, N.S., 2008, Hillston 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8031, Geological Survey of New South Wales, map
REFID: 69164 Colquhoun, G.P., Cameron, R.G., Meakin, N.S., 2008, Cargelligo 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8131, Geological Survey of New South Wales, map


Full Bibliographic Details (ordered by usage, publication year)

REFID: 22887 Cameron, R.G. 1997 Booligal 1:250 000 Geological Sheet SI/55-5: Explanatory Notes Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v 94p
Usage: Defined (p34, Fig.6 p13) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 61185 Edwards, J. , Olshina, A. , Slater, K.R. 1997 Nagambie and part of Yea 1:100 000 map geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 109 142pp, 5 maps, 1 disk (3 1/2in)
Usage: Defined (p57-62, p15, p64) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Of Macumber (1973). Of Wunghnu Gp. Reworked White Hills Gravel and colluvial seds. Under Shepparton Fm and Newer Volcanics; disconf. over Renmark Gp; conform. over/interfingers with Parilla Sand. Subsurface in NAGAMBIE. See Calivil Sand. Auriferous.
REFID: 42966 Brown, C.M. , Stephenson, A.E. 1991 Geology of the Murray Basin, Southeastern Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia. Bulletin 235 430pp
Usage: Defined (p179) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group.
REFID: 61964 Colquhoun, G.P. , Meakin, N.S. , Cameron, R.G. 2005 CARGELLIGO, New South Wales 1:250 000 Geological Sheet SI/55-6: Explanatory Notes - 3rd. edition Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v 291p +DVD
Usage: Fully described (p14 Fig. 4p141-143) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Of Murray Group? Fluvial gravels, sands and fine-grained sands pale grey, poorly sorted medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand/sandstone with a white kaolinitic clay matrix. Unconformably overlies Olney Formation (Renmark Group). Geol. Prov: Murray Basin
REFID: 24177 Edwards, J. , Slater, K.R. , McHaffie, I.W. 2001 Bendigo 1:250 000 map area geological report Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 72
Usage: Fully described (p71) Min age from reference: Late Miocene Max age from reference: Late Eocene Comments: Interfingers with Parilla Sand. Overlies the Renmark Group. Overlain by the Newer Volcanics and Shepparton Volcanics. Interpretation of age varies. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 22893 Cameron, R.G. 1996 Geology of the POONCARIE 1:250 000 map, SI/54-8: Explanatory Notes Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v 108pp
Usage: Fully described (p29 fig9 table3) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 22756 Cayley, R.A. , McDonald, P.A. 1995 Beaufort 1:100 000 Map Geological Report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 104 145p
Usage: Fully described (P13, P31) Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments:
REFID: 31951 Macumber, P.G. 1973 Progress report on the groundwater survey of the Avoca & Loddon Valleys. Victoria. Department of Mines. Groundwater Investigation Program. Report 1972 p7
Usage: Fully described (p7) Comments:
REFID: 24383 Willman, C.E. , Bibby, L.M. , Radojkovic, A.M. , Maher, S. , Haydon, S.J. , Hollis, J.D. , Osborne, C.R. 2002 Castlemaine, Victoria 1:100 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria 121 170p
Usage: Described (p10, 18) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments: Age: 40 - 5Ma. Overlying Unit: Newer Volcanic Group. Underlying Unit: Castlemaine Group. Parent: White Hills Gravel. Geological Province: Lachlan Fold Belt
REFID: 60451 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. 2001 Ararat - 1:100 000 Map Area Geological Report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 115 324p
Usage: Described (p30, 95 Fig. 61, 98, 253) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Age: 40-6Ma, but not directly dated. Palynology indicates max age. Overlain by Miocene-Pliocene units. Interfingers with the Renmark, Murray and Wunghnu Groups. Underlies: Parilla Sand, Shepparton Formation, Newer Volcanics.
REFID: 60452 Edwards, J. , Moore, D.H. , Lynn, S.F. , Bibby, L.M. 2001 Wedderburn - 1:100 000 Map Area Geological Report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 122 113p
Usage: Described (p35) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments: First named by Macumber (1973), then called Calivil Sand (Lawrence, 1975) but reverted to original name of Calivil Formation (Tickell & Humphreys, 1980). Overlies Castlemaine Group, diconformably overlies Renmark Group. Overlain by Shepparton Formation.
REFID: 23305 Taylor, D.H. , Wohlt, K.E. , Simons, B.A. , Maher, S. , Morand, V.J. , Sapurmas, P. 2000 Creswick 1:100 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 117 p147
Usage: Described (p52) Comments: Of Macumber (1972). Overlain by Newer Volcanics. Geological Province: Lachlan Fold Belt. Max. thickness: 4 m.
REFID: 23921 Roy, P.S. , Whitehouse, J. , Cowell, P.J. 2000 Mineral Sands Occurrences in the Murray Basin, Southeastern Australia Economic Geology 95 (5) p1107-1128
Usage: Described (p1109, p1114) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 60491 Bibby, L.M. , Moore, D.H. 1998 Charlton 1:100 000 map geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 116 92
Usage: Described (p16, p21) Comments: Interfingers with the Parilla Sand. Consists of fluvial and fluviolacustrine quartzose sand and gravel.
REFID: 23164 Krokowski de Vickerod, J. , Moore, D.H. , Cayley, R.A. 1997 St Arnaud 1:100 000 Map Area Geological Report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 110 112pp
Usage: Described (p15) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 22971 Maher, S. , VandenBerg, A.H.M. , McDonald, P.A. , Sapurmas, P. 1997 The geology and prospectivity of the Wangaratta 1:250 000 map sheet area Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 46
Usage: Described (p26, p27) Comments: Max. thickness: <25m. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 60585 Taylor, D.H. , Whitehead, M.L. , Olshina, A. , Leonard, J.G. 1996 Ballarat 1:100 000 map geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 101 117p
Usage: Described (p28) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Eocene Comments: Disconformably overlain by the Moorabool Viaduct Sand. Consists of poorly to moderately sorted polymictic cobbles, pebbles, sand and clay that have been ferruginised or silicified.
REFID: 43211 Willman, C.E. 1995 Castlemaine Goldfield - Castlemaine-Chewton, Fryers Creek 1:10 000 geological report. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 106
Usage: Described (p4,Fig.5 p15,27-8) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 43493 Cherry, D.P. , Wilkinson, H.E. 1994 Bendigo and part of Mitiamo 1:100 000 map, geological report. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 99 80p
Usage: Described (32) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 42881 Jacobson, G. , Ferguson, J. , Evans, W.R. 1994 Groundwater-discharge playas of the Mallee region, Murray Basin, southeast Australia. In Rosen, M.R. (ed) Paleoclimate and Basin Evolution of Playa Systems. Geological Society of America. Special Paper 289 p81-96
Usage: Described (Fig.3, P84) Comments:
REFID: 42454 Tickell, S.J. 1991 Shepparton. 1:100 000 map, geological report. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 88 26p.
Usage: Described (p11) Min age from reference: early Pliocene Max age from reference: late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 41765 Tickell, S.J. 1989 Dookie, 1:100 000 map, geological report. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 87
Usage: Described (p36) Comments:
REFID: 42134 Kellett, J.R. 1989 The Ivanhoe Block-its structure, hydrogeology and effect on groundwaters of the Riverine Plain of New South Wales. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p333-353
Usage: Described (p339) Comments:
REFID: 49038 Brown, C.M. , Stephenson, A.E. 1986 Murray Basin, southeastern Australia: subsurface stratigraphic database. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia, Report 262
Usage: Described (Table 2) Comments: Briefly described P26
REFID: 35091 Tickell, S.J. 1978 Geology and hydrogeology of the eastern part of the Riverine Plain in Victoria. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 1977/8
Usage: Described (p8) Comments: Also P29.
REFID: 35172 Macumber, P.G. 1978 Hydrologic change in the Loddon Basin: the influence of groundwater dynamics on surface processes. Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 90(1) p125-138
Usage: Described (p127) Comments:
REFID: 71593 Schofield, A. 2018 Regional geology and mineral systems of the Stavely Arc, western Victoria Geoscience Australia. Record 2018/02 220p
Usage: Briefly described (p52, p54) Comments: , Wunghu Group
REFID: 71419 VandenBerg, A.H.M. 2016 Depositonal facies and extent of the late Neogene Sandringham Sandstone in southern Victoria, Australia Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 128 7-24
Usage: Briefly described (p8 Fig 2, p14, p17-18.) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Fluvial sediments derived from the Western Uplands. Source for later marine deposits i.e. Sandringham Sandstone. , Overlain by Sandringham Sandstone. , Contains conglomerate consisting almost exclusively of vein quartz clasts.
REFID: 70718 Carlton, A. A. 2016 Geophysical - Geological interpretation notes: Hay SI/55-09 1:250 000 map sheet. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Report GS2011/0800 129p
Usage: Briefly described (p17, p25) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments: Is one of the primary aquifers in the Hay map sheet area. Misspellt as the Calival Formation on p25. , Overlain by the Loxton Sand. Overlies the Upper Renmark Beds. Transitionally overlain by the Shepparton Formation. , Relatively coarse and poorly sorted fluvial sands and muddy overbank deposits.
REFID: 68140 Cartwright, I. , Weaver, T.R. , Cendon, D.I. , Fifield, L.K. , Tweed, S.O. , Petrides, B. , Swane, I. 2012 Constraining groundwater flow, residence times, inter-aquifer mixing, and aquifer properties using environmental isotopes in the southeast Murray Basin, Australia Applied Geochemistry 27 1698-1709
Usage: Briefly described (p1699) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: No outcrop. In hydraulic conductivity with the underlying Renmark Formation throughout much of the Riverine Province; they commonly form a single aquifer, and are referred to in this article as Calivil-Renmark Formation (see references p1698, p1699, p1702, pp1705-1708). , Underlain by the Renmark Formation. , Sands.
REFID: 68116 Welch, S.I. , Higgins, D.V. , Callaway, G.A. 2011 Surface geology of Victoria 1:250 000 Geological Survey of Victoria 1v 114p
Usage: Briefly described (Appendix, Maps 22-24, 30-32, 40-41, 50.) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments: , Conglomerate, sandstone, silt, clay: brown to pale colours; poorly sorted; clasts variably rounded; predominant vein quartz clasts; cross-bedding prominent.
REFID: 65552 Whitehouse, J. 2009 Mineral systems of the Murray Basin, New South Wales Geological Survey of New South Wales. Quarterly Notes 132 27p
Usage: Briefly described (p2, p5 Fig.3, p6-8, p13, p15, p19) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: See also p24 App.3, p26 App.5. Of Wanghnu Group, eastern Murray Basin. Medium to coarse grained quartz sand/sandstone with locally thick kaolin lenses. Overlies Olney Formation (Renmark Group), conformably underlies Shepparton and Coonambidgal Formations.
REFID: 65715 VandenBerg, A.H.M. 2009 Rock unit names in the Bendigo Zone portion of central Victoria, seamless geology project Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 129 112p
Usage: Briefly described (p11 Tb.7, p11-12, 14, 16, 26, 27) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Included in Wunghnu Group by Lawrence (1975). Correlated with older Murray Group by Holdgate and Gallagher (2003). Overlies Werribee Formation. Underlies Newer Volcanics. Younger than White Hills Gravel. Distribution modified see p14.
REFID: 66002 VandenBerg, A.H.M. 2009 Rock unit names in western Victoria, seamless geology project Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 130 87p
Usage: Briefly described (p10 Tb.7, p12) Min age from reference: Paleogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Correlative of (obsolete) Loddon River Group. Previously included in Wunghnu Group (1975), but shown to correlate with Murray Group (Holdgate & Gallagher 2003). See also Macumber 1991.
REFID: 69164 Colquhoun, G.P. , Cameron, R.G. , Meakin, N.S. 2008 Cargelligo 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8131 Geological Survey of New South Wales map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Murray Basin. , Poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand and sandstone, white clay-rich matrix; interbedded siltstone and claystone; silicified and ferruginised duricrust common.
REFID: 69163 Cameron, R.G. , Colquhoun, G.P. , Meakin, N.S. 2008 Hillston 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8031 Geological Survey of New South Wales map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Murray Basin. , Poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand and sandstone, white clay-rich matrix; interbedded siltstone and claystone; silicified and ferruginised duricrust common.
REFID: 64823 Cartwright, I. , Simmonds, I. 2008 Impact of changing climate and land use on the hydrogeology of southeast Australia Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 55(8) p1009-1021
Usage: Briefly described (p1011) Comments: Paleochannel deposits. Geological province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 69162 Colquhoun, G.P. , Meakin, N.S. , Cameron, R.G. 2008 Merriwagga 1:100 000 Geology Sheet 8030 Geological Survey of New South Wales map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Murray Basin. , Poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand and sandstone, white clay-rich matrix; interbedded siltstone and claystone; silicified and ferruginised duricrust common.
REFID: 64568 Meakin, N.S. , Colquhoun, G.P. , Cameron, R.G. 2008 TULLIBIGEAL 1:100 000 Geological Sheet 8231 Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Silurian Max age from reference: Silurian Comments: Geol.Prov: Murray Basin. [Note: map symbol suggests Tertiary age]. Poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand and sandstone, white clay-rich matrix; interbedded siltstone and claystone; silicified and ferruginised duricrust is common.
REFID: 64314 Raiber, M. , Webb, J.A. 2008 Tectonic control of Tertiary deposition in the Streatham Deep-Lead System in western Victoria Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 55(4) p493-508
Usage: Briefly described (p498 Fig. 3, p502 Fig. 7) Min age from reference: Late Miocene Max age from reference: Late Eocene Comments: Of Macumber (1973). Thickness: ~30m. Use also in the compound name Yaloak/Calivill Formation. See also p500 Fig. 5, p501.
REFID: 65969 Moore, D.H. 2006 Bendigo 1:250 000 and part of Deniliquin 1:250 000 map areas: a geological interpretation of geophysical data Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 86 35pp +2 App
Usage: Briefly described (p27 Tb.3.3, p30-1) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments: Murray Basin. Erosional contact with underlying Olney Formation. Of Murray Group. Typically clay and silt interbedded with sand and gravel. Fines to the north of the BENDIGO 1:250 000 sheet. Occurs in paleotopographic lows and fills paleovalleys. Up to 70 m thick. Extensively worked for gold near Bendigo. Minor areas have magnetic responses to 15 nT; no distinctive radiometric response.
REFID: 62405 Meakin, N.S. , Colquhoun, G.P. , Cameron, R.G. , Hendrickx, M.A. , Vassallo, J.J. , Forster, D.B. 2006 CARGELLIGO 1:250 000 geological sheet, SI/55-6 - 3rd edition Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand and sandstone, white clay-rich matrix;interbedded siltstone and claystone; silicified and ferruginised duricrust common.
REFID: 62370 Holdgate, G.R. , Wallace, M.W. , Gallagher, S.J. , Witten, R.B. , Stats, B. , Wagstaff, B.E. 2006 Cenozoic fault control on 'deep lead' palaeoriver systems, Central Highlands, Victoria Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 53(3) P445-468
Usage: Briefly described (p447, p452 Fig.4) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Fluvial deep-lead infill of sand and cobble conglomerate, and includes pallid clay and ferruginous clasts, recycled pebbles and locally eroded bedrock, in some areas has a magnetic ferricrete cap. Unconformably underlies Shepparton Formation.
REFID: 68194 Williams, B. , House, E.R. 2006 The regolith of the Rupanyup 1:100 000 map area Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 89 CD-ROM
Usage: Briefly described (p9, p17, p21, p23, p25-26, p35-36, p40) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: See also p44, p55. Macumber (1972). Preserved on hills and rises, overlying weathered bedrock or Parilla Sand. Regolith and remote sensing profiles described. Age given as Eocene on p55. , Unit in Murray Group. , Lateral facies equivalent of Geera Clay. , Alluvial sands in paleovalleys, and gravels overlying bedrock highs.
REFID: 61160 Morand, V.J. , Simons, B.A. , Taylor, D.H. , Cayley, R.A. , Maher, S. , Wohlt, K.E. , Radojkovic, A.M. 2005 Bogong 1:100 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 125 208 pp
Usage: Briefly described (p150) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Buried auriferous gravels or deep leads within this unit are present in valleys of the upper Ovens River and Morses Creek in BUFFALO.
REFID: 61175 VandenBerg, A.H.M. , Morand, V.J. 2004 Bright 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (map legend) Min age from reference: Quaternary Max age from reference: Quaternary Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. Gravel, sand, silt, clay: generally consolidated (in subsurface only). GSV map code: Nwc.
REFID: 61177 VandenBerg, A.H.M. , Simons, B.A. , Quinn, C. , Willman, C.E. 2004 Buffalo 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (map legend) Min age from reference: Quaternary Max age from reference: Quaternary Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. Gravel, sand, silt, clay: generally consolidated (in subsurface only). GSV map code: Nwc.
REFID: 61176 VandenBerg, A.H.M. , Simons, B.A. , Quinn, C. , Willman, C.E. , Edwards, J. , Morand, V.J. 2004 Dandongadale 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (map legend) Min age from reference: Quaternary Max age from reference: Quaternary Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. Gravel, sand, silt, clay: generally consolidated (in subsurface only). GSV map code: Nwc.
REFID: 61174 VandenBerg, A.H.M. , Morand, V.J. , Quinn, C. , Edwards, J. , Wohlt, K.E. 2004 Myrtleford 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (map legend) Min age from reference: Quaternary Max age from reference: Quaternary Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. Gravel, sand, silt, clay: generally consolidated (in subsurface only). GSV map code: Nwc.
REFID: 68189 Moore, D.H. 2004 St Arnaud 1:250 000 map; a geological interpretation of the geophysical data Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 82
Usage: Briefly described (p4, p26-29, p33) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments: River valley depositional environment. Upstream time equivalent of the younger part of the Olney Formation. Truncated by the Mologa Surface. Hosts alluvial Au won in ST ARNAUD in the near surface and where it forms deep leads. , Nonconformably underlain by the White Hills Gravel. , Comprises mud, subangular to subrounded sand, reef quartz gravel.
REFID: 24440 Kotsonis, A. 2003 Bendigo 1:100 000 regolith - landform map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Comments:
REFID: 24551 Birch, W.D. (ed.) 2003 Geology of Victoria Geological Society of Australia. Special Publication 23 842p
Usage: Briefly described (p322, 321, 421, 543) Comments: Of the Murray Group. Max thickness: 50m.
REFID: 50154 Morand, V.J. , Wohlt, K.E. , Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. , Kemp, A.I.S. , Simons, B.A. , Magart, A.P.M. 2003 Glenelg Special Map Area - Geological Report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 123 256p
Usage: Briefly described (p133) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group. Geological Province: Murray Group.
REFID: 24439 Kotsonis, A. , Joyce, E.B. 2003 The regolith of the Bendigo 1:100 000 map area Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 77 62p
Usage: Briefly described (p8, p23) Comments: See also p9 Fig. 3. Author disputes presence of this unit in BENDIGO as defined by Macumber (1991) - see p. 37. Fluvial deposits.
REFID: 24108 Gibson, D.L. , Wilford, J. 2002 Aspects of regolith and landscape of the Strathbogie-Caniambo-Dookie area IN Phillips, G.N. and Ely, K.S. (Editors) Victoria Undercover: Benalla 2002 Conference proceedings and field guide: collaborative geoscience in northern Victoria CSIRO p235-247
Usage: Briefly described (p242) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Geological Province: Murray Basin. Overlying Unit: Shepparton Formation.
REFID: 24388 Haydon, S.J. , Allen, R.J. 2002 Castlemaine 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Eocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Quartz cobble conglomerate; nonmagnetic.
REFID: 24387 Bibby, L.M. , Willman, C.E. 2002 Castlemaine 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Eocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Quartz cobble conglomerate.
REFID: 24385 Osborne, C.R. , Bibby, L.M. , Willman, C.E. , Maher, S. , Hollis, J.D. 2002 Daylesford 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Eocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Quartz cobble conglomerate.
REFID: 24219 Taylor, D.H. , Gentle, L.V. 2002 Evolution of deep-lead palaeodrainages and gold exploration at Ballarat, Australia Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 49 (5) p869-878
Usage: Briefly described (p870) Comments:
REFID: 24384 Willman, C.E. , Radojkovic, A.M. 2002 Malmsbury 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Eocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Quartz cobble conglomerate.
REFID: 24043 Timms, W. , Acworth, R.I. 2002 Origin, lithology and weathering characteristics of Upper Tertiary - Quarternary clay aquitard units on the Lower Murrumbidgee alluvial fan Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 49 (3) p525-537
Usage: Briefly described (p525) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments:
REFID: 24105 Hughes, M.J. , Carey, S.P. 2002 Palaeodrainage development of the Victorian Uplands, Victoria, Australia IN Phillips, G.N. and Ely, K.S. (Editors) Victoria Undercover: Benalla 2002 Conference proceedings and field guide: collaborative geoscience in northern Victoria CSIRO p155-159
Usage: Briefly described (p155) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments:
REFID: 24106 Gibson, D.L. , Wilford, J. , Tan, K.P. , Lawrie, K.C. 2002 Palaeogeography, a predictive tool in environmental studies - applications to the margins of the Murray Basin IN Phillips, G.N. and Ely, K.S. (Editors) Victoria Undercover: Benalla 2002 Conference proceedings and field guide CSIRO p183-192
Usage: Briefly described (p185) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 24103 Kotsonis, A. , Joyce, E.B. 2002 Regolith mapping of the Bendigo region of Victoria. IN Phillips, G.N. and Ely, K.S. (Editors) ' Victoria Undercover: Benalla 2002 Conference proceedings and field guide: collaborative geoscience in northern Victoria' CSIRO p137-145
Usage: Briefly described (p139 Fig.3, p143 Fig.6) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Middle Tertiary.
REFID: 24386 Osborne, C.R. , Radojkovic, A.M. 2002 Trentham 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Eocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Quartz cobble conglomerate
REFID: 24329 Edwards, J. , Slater, K.R. 2001 Bendigo, Victoria: 1:250 000 geological map, Edition 3 Geological Survey of Victoria 1v. Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Neogene Comments:
REFID: 24328 Slater, K.R. 2001 Bendigo, Victoria: Geophysical Map Sheet 1:250 000 geological interpretation of the geophysical features, Edition 1 Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Neogene Comments:
REFID: 23884 Brodie, R.S. 2001 Chapter 13 - Salinisation and environmental geoscience: a case study in the Murray Basin IN Gostin, V.A. ed., 'Gondwana to Greenhouse: Australian Environmental Geoscience' Geological Society of Australia. Special Publication 21 p153-158
Usage: Briefly described (p153, p155 Fig.13.2) Comments: Geological Province: Murray Basin. Of the Wunghnu Group.
REFID: 24232 Lane, R. , Heislers, D. , McDonald, P. 2001 Filling in the gaps - validation and integration of airborne EM data with surface and subsurface observations for catchment management - an example from Bendigo, Victoria Exploration Geophysics 32 (3-4) p225-235
Usage: Briefly described (p227, p231) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments:
REFID: 60462 Moore, D.H. 2001 Wedderburn 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Neogene Comments: Poorly sorted fine to coarse grained terrestrial sand: magnetic where ferruginised with responses to 20 nT; where cropping out thorium high.
REFID: 60461 Edwards, J. , Moore, D.H. , Lynn, S. 2001 Wedderburn 1:100 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments: Of the Murray Group. River valley deposits - Powlett Plains deep lead and colluvium: interbedded clay, silty clay, silt and subangular to subrounded fine to coarse-grained quartz sand, reef quartz and metasediment gravel, minor ligneous clay.
REFID: 60454 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. 2000 Ararat 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Pre-basaltic overbank, point bar and channel lag sequences.
REFID: 60459 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor , D.H. 2000 Ararat and part of Rupanyup 1:100 000 geological interpretation of geophysical features map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Pre-basaltic alluvium now entirely buried beneath younger units.
REFID: 23302 Wohlt, K.E. , Simons, B.A. 2000 Campbelltown 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria Map - 7623-1 Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments:
REFID: 23303 Taylor, D.H. 2000 Creswick 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria Map - 7623-2 Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments:
REFID: 60458 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. 2000 Fyans and part of Glenorchy 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Pre-basaltic overbank, point bar and channel lag sequence also known as 'Older Gold Drift' and 'deep leads'.
REFID: 23304 Wohlt, K.E. , Taylor, D.H. , Simons, B.A. , Magart, A.P.M. 2000 Maryborough 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria Map - 7623-4 Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments:
REFID: 60457 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. 2000 Stawell and part of Callawadda 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Pre-basaltic overbank, point bar and channel lag sequence also known as 'Older Gold Drift' and 'deep leads': often richly auriferous; poorly sorted gravel, sand and minor kaolinitic clay.
REFID: 60456 Taylor, D.H. , Cayley, R.A. 2000 Watgania 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Paleogene Comments: Pre-basaltic overbank, point bar and channel lag sequence; poorly sorted gravel, sand and minor kaolinitic clay.
REFID: 23300 Taylor, D.H. , Simons, B.A. 2000 Waubra 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria Map - 7623-3 Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Cenozoic Max age from reference: Cenozoic Comments:
REFID: 60593 Wohlt, K.E. , Edwards, J. 1999 Avonmore 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group and unconformably overlies the Urana Formation. Clay, silty clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60595 Edwards, J. , Wohlt, K.E. 1999 Colbinabbin 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group and unconformably overlies the Urana Formation. Clay, silty clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60592 Edwards, J. , Wohlt, K.E. 1999 Costerfield and part of Pyalong 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group and unconformably overlies the Urana Formation. Clay, silty clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60591 Wohlt, K.E. , Edwards, J. 1999 Heathcote 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group and unconformably overlies the Urana Formation. Clay, silty clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60597 Slater, K.R. 1999 Heathcote and parts of Woodend and Echuca 1:100 000 map. Geological interpretation of geophysical features Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Deep lead fluvial deposits: no distinctive magnetic responses.
REFID: 10010 Whitehouse, J. , Roy, P.S. , Oakes, G.M. 1999 Mineral Sand Resources Potential of the Murray Basin Geological Survey of New South Wales, Department of Mineral Resources 1999/38 74p
Usage: Briefly described (p12 Fig. 3, p17) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Of Wunghnu Group. Overlies upper part of Renmark Group. Grades upwards into Shepparton and Coonambidgal Formations. Geological Province: Murray Basin. Considered to be fluvial counterpart of Loxton-Parilla Sands.
REFID: 60596 Wohlt, K.E. , Edwards, J. 1999 Tongala 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Overlies the Renmark Group and unconformably overlies the Urana Formation. Clay, silty clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60492 Bibby, L.M. , Moore, D.H. 1998 Charlton 1:100 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Alluvium: gravel, sand, silt, conglomerate.
REFID: 22857 Scheibner, E. , Basden, H. (ed.) 1998 Geology of New South Wales - Synthesis. Volume 2 Geological Evolution. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 13(2) 666pp
Usage: Briefly described (p352-3 Figs. 24.8 and 24.9, p354) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Early Pliocene Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. A porous fluvio-lacustrine unit that is an important basin-wide aquifer. At the margins of the basin this unit contains conglomerate as well as sands. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 60599 Edwards, J. , Wohlt, K.E. , Slater, K.R. , Olshina, A. , Hutchinson, D.F. 1998 Heathcote and parts of Woodend and Echuca 1:100 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 108 212pp, 6 maps, 1 disk (3 1/2 in)
Usage: Briefly described (p15, p85) Min age from reference: Late Eocene Max age from reference: Middle Miocene Comments: Of the Wunghnu Group. Fluvial sediments. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 23089 Mason, A.J. , Teakle, M. , Blampain, P.A. 1998 Heavy mineral sand deposits, central Murray Basin IN Berkman, D.A. & Mackenzie, D.H. (eds) 'Geology of Australian and Papua New Guinean mineral deposits' AusIMM. Monograph Series 22 p647-650
Usage: Briefly described (p649) Comments:
REFID: 22773 Scheibner, E. , Basden, H. (ed.) 1998 Part 8(24). Cainozoic. In: Geology of New South Wales - Synthesis. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 13(2) p331-359
Usage: Briefly described (Fig24.8p352,354) Comments:
REFID: 61701 Edwards, J. 1997 Arcadia 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Goulburn Valley deep lead river deposits: interbedded clay, silty-clay, silt, and sub-angular to sub-rounded fine to coarse grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, unconsolidated.
REFID: 23252 Cameron, R.G. 1997 Booligal 1:250 000 geological sheet, SI55-5 Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Comments:
REFID: 44931 Cayley, R.A. , Taylor, D.H. 1997 Grampians Special 1:250 000 map. Geological interpretation of geophysical features. Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map Legend
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Tertiary Max age from reference: Tertiary Comments: Alluvial clay and sand, and minor gravel.
REFID: 61702 Edwards, J. 1997 Longwood and part of Yea 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Goulburn Valley deep lead river deposits: interbedded clay, silty-clay, silt, and sub-angular to sub-rounded fine to coarse grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, unconsolidated.
REFID: 60529 Edwards, J. 1997 Murchison, Victoria 1:50 000 geological map sheet 7924-4, Zone 55 - Edition 1 Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Goulburn Valley deep lead river deposits: interbedded clay, silty-clay, silt, and sub-angular to sub-rounded fine to coarse grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, unconsolidated.
REFID: 61703 Edwards, J. , Wohlt, K.E. 1997 Nagambie and part of Tallarook 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Goulburn Valley deep lead river deposits: interbedded clay, silty-clay, silt, and sub-angular to sub-rounded fine to coarse grained sand, gravel; poorly sorted, unconsolidated.
REFID: 22886 Edwards, J.E. , Willman, C.E. , McHaffie, I.W. , Olshina, A. , Willocks, A.J. 1997 The geology and prospectivity of the Castlemaine, Woodend, Yea and part of Bacchus Marsh 1:100 000 map sheets Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 51
Usage: Briefly described (p36) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 60581 Taylor, D.H. 1996 Ballarat 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Variably rounded gravels of vein quartz, minor bedrock and White Hills Gravel clasts with sand, silt, clay and plant material.
REFID: 60583 Taylor, D.H. 1996 Linton 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria. 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Variably rounded gravels of vein quartz, minor bedrock and White Hills Gravel clasts with sand, silt, clay and plant material.
REFID: 60582 Taylor, D.H. 1996 Mercer 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Variably rounded gravels of vein quartz, minor bedrock and White Hills Gravel clasts with sand, silt, clay and plant material.
REFID: 44188 Cameron, R.G. 1996 Pooncarie 1:250 000 geological map series sheet SI54-8. Geological Survey of New South Wales 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: Geological province: Murray Basin. Fluvial deposits- poorly consolidated pale grey, poorly sorted coarse to granular quartz sand, conglomerate with white kaolinitic matrix.
REFID: 60584 Taylor, D.H. 1996 Rokewood 1:50 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments: Variably rounded gravels of vein quartz, minor bedrock and White Hills Gravel clasts with sand, silt, clay and plant material.
REFID: 43655 Hostettler, S. , Radke, B. 1995 An inventory of saline water disposal basins, Murray Basin. Volume 1 & 2 Australian Geological Survey Organisation. Record 1995/4,1995/5 p1-846
Usage: Briefly described (p40-846) Comments:
REFID: 43260 Cayley, R.A. 1995 Beaufort 1:100 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments:
REFID: 43261 Cherry, D.P. , Wilkinson, H.E. , King, R.L. , Malone, M P. , Willman, C.E. , Byrne, D.R. 1995 Bendigo and part of Mitiamo 1:100 000 geological map. Prelim Ed. Geological Survey of Victoria 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 43846 Bush, M.D. , Cayley, R.A. , Rooney, S. , Slater, K. , Whitehead, M.L. 1995 The geology and prospectivity of the southern margin of the Murray Basin Victorian Initiative for Minerals and Petroleum Report 4 122pp
Usage: Briefly described (14) Max age from reference: Oligocene Comments:
REFID: 43199 Willman, C.E. 1994 Castlemaine goldfield - Castlemaine-Chewton 1:10 000 geological map. Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 43198 Willman, C.E. 1994 Castlemaine goldfield - Fryers Creek 1:10 000 geological map Geological Survey of Victoria 1v map
Usage: Briefly described (Map Legend) Min age from reference: Oligocene Max age from reference: Eocene Comments:
REFID: 42455 Tickell, S.J. 1989 Shepparton 7925 Zone 55. 1:100 000 geological map series. Victoria. Department of Industry, Technology and Resources 1v Map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend) Min age from reference: early Pliocene Max age from reference: late Miocene Comments:
REFID: 42125 Brown, C.M. 1989 Structural and stratigraphic framework of groundwater occurrence and surface discharge in the Murray Basin, southeastern Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p127-146
Usage: Briefly described (p137) Comments: See also Fig.5
REFID: 41868 Douglas, J.G. , Ferguson, J.A. 1988 Geology of Victoria. Chapter 12: Economic geology. Geological Society of Australia. Victorian Division 1v p453-602
Usage: Briefly described (p551) Comments:
REFID: 41068 Arad, A. , Evans, R. 1987 The hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes of the Campaspe River aquifer system, North-Central Victoria , Australia. Journal of Hydrology 95(1/2) p63-86
Usage: Briefly described (p67) Comments:
REFID: 40599 Calf, G.E. , Ife, D. , Tickell, S. , Smith, L.W. 1986 Hydrogeology and isotope hydrology of Upper Tertiary and Quaternary aquifers in northern Victoria. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 33(1) p19-26
Usage: Briefly described (p19) Comments:
REFID: 34813 Woolley, D.R. 1978 Cainozoic sedimentation in the Murray drainage basin,New South Wales section. Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 90(1) p61-65
Usage: Briefly described (p63) Comments: Also mentioned on P62
REFID: 69798 Davidson, J.C. , Fahey, M.E. 2014 Interpreting the Oaklands Basin: morphology, stratigraphy and petroleum potential Geological Survey of New South Wales. Quarterly Notes 142 23p
Usage: Mentioned (p4 Fig.2) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: Murray Basin. , Wunghnu Group.
REFID: 67179 Robson, T.C. , Webb, J.A. 2011 Late Neogene tectonics in northwestern Victoria: Evidence from the Late Miocene-Pliocene Loxton Sand. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 58(6) p579-586
Usage: Mentioned (p581) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Fluvial valley fill east of study area. , Interfingers with the Loxton Sand (lateral equivalent).
REFID: 64612 Cayley, R.A. , Skladzien, P.B. , Williams, B. , Willman, C.E. 2008 Redesdale and part of Pyalong 1:50 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 128 98p
Usage: Mentioned (p28) Min age from reference: Cainozoic Max age from reference: Cainozoic Comments:
REFID: 61822 Hill, S.M. , West, D.S. , Shirtliff, G. , Senior, A.B. , Maly, B.E.R. , Jones, G.L. , Holzapfel, M. , Foster, K.A. , Debenham, S.C. , Dann, R. , Brachmanis, J. 2005 Southern Barrier Ranges - Northern Murray Basin, New South Wales IN Anand, R.R. and de Broekert, P. (eds.) "Regolith Landscape Evolution Across Australia: a compilation of regolith landscape case studies with regolith landscape evolution models" CRC LEME (Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Environments and Mineral Exploration) 1v p104-109
Usage: Mentioned (p107) Min age from reference: Neogene Max age from reference: Neogene Comments:
REFID: 61163 VandenBerg, A.H.M. , Willman, C.E. , Morand, V.J. , McHaffie, I.W. , Simons, B.A. , Quinn, C. , Westcott, A. 2004 Buffalo 1:100 000 map area geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 124 205 pp
Usage: Mentioned (p99) Comments: Of Wunghnu Gp. Overlies Shepparton Fm. Poorly sorted gravels with abundance of sandstone clasts now fragile due to in-situ weathering; vein quartz clasts are subangular to subrounded. Economically important due to placer gold content. Geol Prov: LFB
REFID: 24107 Dent, D. , Munday, T.J. , Brodie, R.C. , Lawrie, K.C. 2002 Implications for salinity and land management - Honeysuckle Creek, Victoria IN Phillips, G.N. and Ely, K.S. (Editors) Victoria Undercover: Benalla 2002 Conference proceedings and field guide: collaborative geoscience in northern Victoria CSIRO p223-233
Usage: Mentioned (p224) Comments:
REFID: 22782 1997 The Lake Tutchewop, Lake William and Lake Kelly Saline Water Disposal Basins, Murray Basin, Australia: Lithostratigraphy, Hydrodynamics and Hydrochemistry. Australian Geological Survey Organisation. Record 1997/6
Usage: Mentioned (p15) Comments:
REFID: 43780 Macphail, M.K. 1996 Palynostratigraphy of the Murray Basin, inland southeastern Australia. Australian Geological Survey Organisation. Record 1996/57 1-38 + Figures, Plates and Appendice
Usage: Mentioned (p6) Comments:
REFID: 43601 O'Brien, P.E. , Burne, R.V. 1994 The Great Cumbung Swamp - terminus of the low-gradient Lachlan River, Eastern Australia AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 15(2) p223-233
Usage: Mentioned (p224) Max age from reference: Early Pliocene Comments:
REFID: 43791 Macphail, M.K. , Kellett, J.R. 1993 Palynostratigraphy of the Bookpurnong Beds and related Late Miocene - Early Pliocene facies in the central west Murray Basin, part 1: dinoflagellates AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 14(4) 371-382
Usage: Mentioned (p372, Fig1) Comments:
REFID: 43804 Macphail, M.K. , Kellett, J.R. , Rexilius, J.P. , O'Rorke, M.E. 1993 The "Geera Clay equivalent" : a regressive marine unit in the Renmark Group that sheds new light on the age of the Mologa weathering surface in the Murray Basin. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 14(1) p47-63
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.2,p49) Comments:
REFID: 42509 Macumber, P.G. 1992 Hydrological processes in the Tyrrell Basin, southeastern Australia. Chemical Geology 96(1/2) p1-18
Usage: Mentioned (p4) Comments:
REFID: 42130 Davie, R.F. , Kellett, J.R. , Fifield, L.K. , Evans, W.R. , Calf, G.E. , Bird, J.R. , Topham, S. , Ophel, T.R. 1989 Chlorine-36 measurements in the Murray Basin: preliminary results from the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p261-272
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.3 P265) Comments:
REFID: 42133 Macphail, M.K. , Truswell, E.M. 1989 Palynostratigraphy of the central west Murray Basin. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p301-331
Usage: Mentioned (p302) Comments:
REFID: 42137 Brown, C.M. , Radke, B.M. 1989 Stratigraphy and sedimentology of mid-Tertiary permeability barriers in the subsurface of the Murray Basin, southeastern Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p367-385
Usage: Mentioned (p370) Comments:
REFID: 42138 Stephenson, A.E. , Brown, C.M. 1989 The ancient Murray River system. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p387-395
Usage: Mentioned (p392) Comments:
REFID: 42126 Evans, W.R. , Kellett, J.R. 1989 The hydrogeology of the Murray Basin, southeastern Australia . BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p147-166
Usage: Mentioned (p149,p151) Comments:
REFID: 42827 Douglas, J.G. , Ferguson, J.A. 1988 Geology of Victoria. Geological Society of Australia. Victorian Division 1v 668p
Usage: Mentioned (p271) Comments: refers to Macumber (1972)
REFID: 40820 Stephenson, A.E. 1986 Lake Bungunnia - A Plio-Pleistocene megalake in southern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 57(2-4) p137-156
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.4) Comments:
REFID: 40664 Walker, P.H. , Taylor, G. 1986 Tertiary Lake Bunyan, Northern Monaro, NSW, Part II: facies analysis and palaeoenvironment implications. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 33(2) p231-251
Usage: Mentioned (p248) Comments:
REFID: 39967 King, R.L. 1985 Explanatory notes on the Ballarat 1:250 000 geological map. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 75
Usage: Mentioned (p41) Comments:
REFID: 49040 Brown, C.M. 1985 Murray Basin, southeastern Australia: stratigraphy and resource potential - a synopsis. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia, Report 264
Usage: Mentioned (p12) Comments:
REFID: 39446 Bolger, P.F. , Nott, R.J. , McKenzie, D.A. 1984 Radiometric age determinations. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 74
Usage: Mentioned (p49) Comments:
REFID: 40520 Odins, J.A. , O'Neill, D.J. , Williams, R.M. 1983 A geophysical survey for groundwater in the Murray River Valley near Corowa, NSW. IN Knight M.J.,Minty E.J.,Smith R.B.(eds)-Collective case studies in engineering geology, hydrogeology and environmental geology. Geological Society of Australia. Special Publication 11 p280-305
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.5) Comments:
REFID: 39329 Brown, C.M. 1983 Discussion: A Cainozoic history of Australia's Southeast Highlands. Geological Society of Australia. Journal 30(4) p483-486
Usage: Mentioned (p483) Comments:
REFID: 39330 Jones, J.G. , Veevers, J.J. 1983 Reply: A Cainozoic history of Australia's Southeast Highlands. Geological Society of Australia. Journal 30 (4) 487-488
Usage: Mentioned (p487) Comments:
REFID: 35187 Taylor, G. 1978 A brief Cainozoic history of the upper Darling Basin. Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 90(1) p53-59
Usage: Mentioned (Table1) Comments:
REFID: 34757 Macumber, P.G. 1978 Evolution of the Murray River during the Tertiary period. Evidence from northern Victoria. Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 90(1) p43-52
Usage: Mentioned (p45) Comments:
REFID: 34735 King, R.L. 1978 Explanatory notes on the St. Arnaud 1:250 000 geological map. Sheet SJ/54-04. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 1977/6
Usage: Mentioned (p30) Comments:
REFID: 35242 Wilkinson, H.E. 1978 Synonymy of the fossil wombat Vombatus Pliocenus (McCoy) with the living species Vombatus Hirsutus (Perry). National Museum, Victoria. Memoirs 39 p93-99
Usage: Mentioned (p94) Comments:
REFID: 31713 Laing, A.C.M. , O'Shea, P.J. , Tickell, S.J. 1977 Explanatory notes on the Wangaratta 1:250 000 geological map. Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 1977/4
Usage: Mentioned (p16) Comments:
REFID: 31746 Lawrence, C.R. , Abele, C. 1976 Tertiary - Murray Basin. IN Douglas J.G.,Ferguson J.A.(eds) - Geology of Victoria. Geological Society of Australia. Special Publication 5 p191-198
Usage: Mentioned (p197) Comments: In reference to Macumber (1972).
REFID: 32232 Victoria. Department of Mines. 1974 Annual report of the Mines Department, Victoria, for the year ended December 31, 1973. Victoria. Department of Mines 1v
Usage: Mentioned (p19) Comments:
REFID: 31953 Macumber, P.G. 1974 Calivil pump test July 31 to August 23, 1974. Victoria. Department of Mines. Groundwater Investigation Program. Report 1974 p9
Usage: Mentioned (p9) Comments:

Bibliographic references returned: 150 This data is subject to Geoscience Australia's disclaimer and copyright statements.