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Bookpurnong Formation STRATNO: 2203
Current: Yes Rank: Formation, beds Status: Formal State(s): NSW , SA , VIC
Category: Variation of published name Usage: Described Definition Card: No
Originator: Entry date: 19-JAN-89Last Update: 17-SEP-18
Replaced by: Previously known as: Bookpurnong Beds
Description: Consists of clays with occasional sandy, silty, carbonaceous and calcareous beds. Shallow marine clays and marls; grey to brown muds; pinnate cracks filled with kaolinite common; local goethite-rich lenticular mottles.
Comments: Superseded Bookpurnong Beds of Lawrence (1961) - revised by Rogers et al (1995) to Bookpurnong Formation. Recent literature sometimes refers to superseded name Bookpurnong Beds. Preferred age from Sr isotopes in shelly fossils 6.5 - 7.2 Ma. See also Bookpurnong beds.
Geological province: Murray Basin
Type state: Reference section type:
Maximum thickness: mMinimum thickness:
Unit Age Event: deposition
Top of unit -
Minimum age: Pliocene Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Maximum age: Ma: 6.5 % from base of biozone: Age method: stable isotopes
Base of unit -
Minimum age: Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Maximum age: Miocene Ma: 7.2 % from base of biozone: Age method: stable isotopes

Stratigraphic Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status

Chemical Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status


Related units: Relationship: Contact Type:
Murray Group underlies Bookpurnong Formation
Parilla Sand is equivalent to Bookpurnong Formation
Norwest Bend Formation overlies Bookpurnong Formation
Loddon River Group underlies Bookpurnong Formation
Duddo Limestone underlies Bookpurnong Formation
Pata Formation underlies Bookpurnong Formation
Loxton Sand overlies Bookpurnong Formation conformity
Monoman Formation overlies Bookpurnong Formation
First Reference:
REFID: 30996 Gill, E.D., 1973, Geology and geomorphology of the Murray River between Mildura and Renmark, Australia., National Museum, Victoria. Memoirs, 34, p1-97

Use on maps:


Full Bibliographic Details (ordered by usage, publication year)

REFID: 71593 Schofield, A. 2018 Regional geology and mineral systems of the Stavely Arc, western Victoria Geoscience Australia. Record 2018/02 220p
Usage: Described (p52-p54) Min age from reference: Pliocene Comments: This unit is only a few metres thick generally. , Overlain by the Loxton Sand. , Clay to marl with occasional shell fragments or mica flakes.
REFID: 30996 Gill, E.D. 1973 Geology and geomorphology of the Murray River between Mildura and Renmark, Australia. National Museum, Victoria. Memoirs 34 p1-97
Usage: Described (p30) Comments:
REFID: 68716 Howles, S. , Kruger, N. , Yan, W. , Smith, A. , Forward, P. , Pfeiffer, P. 2012 Loxton salt interception scheme MESA Journal 66 38-46
Usage: Briefly described (p39 Fig.3, p40, p43, p44 Fig.7) Comments: Aquitard - extremely low permeability. , Overlain by the Loxton Sand and Monoman Formation. Underlain by the Pata Formation.
REFID: 67462 Hou, B. , Zang, W. , Fabris, A. , Keeling, J. , Stoian, L. , Fairclough, M. 2007 Palaeodrainage and Tertiary coastal barriers of South Australia. Digital geological map of South Australia 1:2 000 000 series. Preliminary edition Primary Industries and Resources, South Australia map
Usage: Briefly described (Map legend.) Min age from reference: Miocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Murray Basin.
REFID: 64237 Cowley, W.M. , Barnett, S.R. 2007 Revision of Oligocene-Miocene Murray Group stratigraphy for geological and groundwater studies in South Australia MESA Journal 47 p17-20
Usage: Briefly described (p19 Fig.2b) Min age from reference: Late Miocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Superseded Bookpurnong Beds of Lawrence (1961) - revised by Rogers et al (1995). Overlies the Murray Group.
REFID: 68548 Pufahl, P.K. , James, N.P. 2006 Monospecific Pliocene oyster buildups, Murray Basin, South Australia: Brackish water end member of the reef spectrum Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 233 11-33
Usage: Briefly described (p13) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Late Miocene to Early Pliocene. , Overlain by the Loxton Sand. , Succession of variably fossiliferous, shallow marine, glauconitic clays and marls.
REFID: 66286 Paine, M. 2005 Sedimentology of the Bondi Main heavy mineral beach placer deposit, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia Sedimentary Geology 174 177-195
Usage: Briefly described (p179, pp189-190.) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Refers to the mud-rich sediments underlying the Loxton-Parilla sands. Deposited during a marine transgression-regression into the Murray Basin. Lacks high carbonate, fossil and glauconite content of other occurrences. 1.5 - 3m blanket under Wimmera Plain. , Overlies Loddon River Group. Is overlain by or interfingers with Loxton-Parilla sands. , Shallow marine clays and marls; grey to brown muds; pinnate cracks filled with kaolinite common; local goethite-rich lenticular mottles.
REFID: 60540 Pufahl, P.K. , James, N.P. , Bone, Y. , Lukasik, J.J. 2004 Pliocene sedimentation in a shallow, cool-water, estuarine gulf, Murray Basin, South Australia Sedimentology 51(5) p997-1027
Usage: Briefly described (p999,p1000 Fig.2,p1002 Fig.4,p1020 ) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Pliocene Comments: Brown and Stephenson (1991), Rogers et al. (1995). Previously Bookpurnong Beds. Zanclean age, based on biostratigraphy? Low-energy, shallow-marine deposits. , Conformably overlain by the Loxton Sand. Onlaps [overlies] the Murray Supergroup. , Variable fossiliferous, shallow marine, glauconitic clays and marls.
REFID: 63887 Fabris, A. 2002 Northwestern Murray Basin - stratigraphy, sedimentology and geomorphology MESA Journal 27 p20-24
Usage: Briefly described (p20, p21, p21 Fig. 1) Min age from reference: Pleistocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Shallow marine depositional environment. Consists of clays with occasional sandy, silty, carbonaceous and calcareous beds.
REFID: 23768 Beu, A.G. , Darragh, T.A. 2001 Revision of Southern Australia Cenozoic Fossil Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) Royal Society of Victoria. Proceedings 113(1) p1-205
Usage: Briefly described (p27, p33, p47) Comments: Geological Province: Murray Basin. Overlain by Norwest Bend Formation. see also p28 Fig. 5.
REFID: 10010 Whitehouse, J. , Roy, P.S. , Oakes, G.M. 1999 Mineral Sand Resources Potential of the Murray Basin Geological Survey of New South Wales, Department of Mineral Resources 1999/38 74p
Usage: Briefly described (p12 Fig. 3) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: See also Bookpurnong beds. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 22857 Scheibner, E. , Basden, H. (ed.) 1998 Geology of New South Wales - Synthesis. Volume 2 Geological Evolution. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 13(2) 666pp
Usage: Briefly described (p352-3 Figs. 24.8 and 24.9, p354) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Passes laterally into the Loxton and Parilla Sands. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 22773 Scheibner, E. , Basden, H. (ed.) 1998 Part 8(24). Cainozoic. In: Geology of New South Wales - Synthesis. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 13(2) p331-359
Usage: Briefly described (Fig24.8p352,354) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments:
REFID: 61185 Edwards, J. , Olshina, A. , Slater, K.R. 1997 Nagambie and part of Yea 1:100 000 map geological report Geological Survey of Victoria. Report 109 142pp, 5 maps, 1 disk (3 1/2in)
Usage: Briefly described (p58) Min age from reference: Late Miocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Name used interchangeably with Bookpurnong Beds. Marine sediments. Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 44133 Drexel, J.F. , Preiss, W.V. 1995 The geology of South Australia. Volume 2 - The Phanerozoic. Geological Survey of South Australia. Bulletin 54 347pp
Usage: Briefly described (p161, 152 Fig. 10.2) Min age from reference: Early Pliocene Max age from reference: Late Miocene Comments: Geological Province: Murray Basin.
REFID: 42127 Lindsay, J.M. , Barnett, S.R. 1989 Aspects of stratigraphy and structure in relation to the Woolpunda Groundwater Interception Scheme, Murray Basin, South Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11(2/3) p219-225
Usage: Briefly described (p222) Comments:
REFID: 41511 Carter, A.N. 1985 A model for depositional sequence in the Late Tertiary of southeastern Australia. IN Lindsay J.M. (ed) - Stratigraphy, palaeontology, malacology. Special Publication (South Australia. Department of Mines and Energy) 5 p13-27
Usage: Briefly described (p18) Comments: See also mention p20.
REFID: 68715 Hou, B. , Fabris, A.J. , Michaelsen, B.H. , Katona, L.F. , Keeling, J.L. , Stoian, L. , Wilson, T.C. , Fairclough, M.C. , Cowley, W.M. 2012 Paleodrainage and Cenozoic coastal barriers of South Australia: new map and GIS dataset MESA Journal 66 26-32
Usage: Mentioned (p31 Fig.5) Min age from reference: Pliocene Max age from reference: Miocene Comments: Murray Basin. Late Miocene maximum age.
REFID: 60785 Fitzgerald, E.M.G. 2004 A review of the Tertiary fossil Cetacea (Mammalia) localities in Australia Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 61(2) p183-208
Usage: Mentioned (p184 Fig.1, p196. ) Min age from reference: Zanclean Max age from reference: Zanclean Comments: South Australia. Has yielded fossil cetacean elements.
REFID: 24551 Birch, W.D. (ed.) 2003 Geology of Victoria Geological Society of Australia. Special Publication 23 842p
Usage: Mentioned (p450) Comments: Supersedes Bookpurnong Beds
REFID: 23226 Lukasik, J.J. , James, N.P. 1998 Lithostratigraphic revision and correlation of the Oligo-Miocene Murray Supergroup, western Murray Basin, South Australia Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 45(6) p889-902
Usage: Mentioned (p901) Comments: May overlap Pata Formation depending upon geographic location. Of Murray Basin.
REFID: 42966 Brown, C.M. , Stephenson, A.E. 1991 Geology of the Murray Basin, Southeastern Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia. Bulletin 235 430pp
Usage: Mentioned (p152) Comments: Synonym for Bookpurnong beds

Bibliographic references returned: 22 This data is subject to Geoscience Australia's disclaimer and copyright statements.