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Waratah Sandstone STRATNO: 19437
Current: Yes Rank: Formation, beds Status: Formal State(s): NSW
Category: Variation of published name Usage: Described Definition Card: No
Originator: Entry date: 01-JAN-88 Last Update: 17-APR-14
Replaced by: Previously known as:
Description: A medium-grained sandstone, well sorted in the middle.
Comments: In the Newcastle Coalfield. Modified in 1999. Now considered to conformably underlie Newcastle Coal Measures. The change is because the top of the unit is much easier to recognise than its gradational base. Equivalent to Watts Sandstone in the Hunter Valley Coalfield.
Geological province: No province information available
Type state: Reference section type:
Maximum thickness: 20m Minimum thickness:
Unit Age
Top of unit -
Minimum age: Late Permian Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Maximum age: Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Base of unit -
Minimum age: Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:
Maximum age: Late Permian Ma: % from base of biozone: Age method:

Stratigraphic Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status

Chemical Hierarchy (current units only) Rank Status


Related units: Relationship: Contact Type:
Borehole Coal overlies Waratah Sandstone
Dempsey Formation underlies Waratah Sandstone
Tomago Coal Measures underlies Waratah Sandstone
Newcastle Coal Measures overlies Waratah Sandstone
Watts Sandstone is equivalent to Waratah Sandstone
First Reference:
REFID: 43477 Booker, F.W., 1960, Studies in Permian sedimentation in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales. Department of Mines. Technical Report, 5, pp10-62

Use on maps:


Full Bibliographic Details (ordered by usage, publication year)

REFID: 24471 Grevenitz, P. , Carr, P. , Hutton, A. 2003 Origin, alteration and geochemical correlation of Late Permian airfall tuffs in coal measures, Sydney Basin, Australia International Journal of Coal Geology 55(1) p27-46
Usage: Described (p32 Fig.4, p33) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Of Newcastle Coal Measures. Possibly stratigraphically equivalent to Darkes Forest Sandstone. Overlies Demspey Formation. Geological Province: Sydney Basin.
REFID: 68711 Ives, M. , Brinton, J. , Edwards, J. , Rigby, R. , Tobin, C. , Weber, C.R. 1999 Revision of the stratigraphy of the Newcastle Coal Measures Coalfield Geology Council Of New South Wales. Bulletin 1 113-119
Usage: Described (p113, 117, 119, p116 Tbl 2, p114 Fig. 2) Comments: Modified. Now considered to conformably underlie Newcastle Coal Measures. The change is because the top of the unit is much easier to recognise than its gradational base. , Previously part of Newcastle Coal Measures , Conformably underlies Lambton Formation, Newcastle Coal Measures. Has gradational base.
REFID: 29942 Britten, R.A. 1972 A review of the stratigraphy of the Singleton Coal Measures and its significance to coal geology and mining in the Hunter Valley region of New South Wales in Newcastle Conference,1972. AusIMM 1v p11-22
Usage: Described (Fig.2) Comments: Permian
REFID: 62033 Creech, M. , Rigby, R. 2006 Revision of the Wollombi Coal measures Minfo 81 p24-25
Usage: Briefly described (p24, p25 (Table)) Comments: Underlies Newcastle Coal Measures. Overlies Tomago Coal Measures. Equivalent to Watts Sandstone in the Hunter Valley Coalfield. Geological Province: Sydney Basin.
REFID: 60281 Stephenson, A.E. , Burch, G.J. 2004 Preliminary Evaluation of the Petroleum Potential of Australia's Central East Margin Geoscience Australia. Record 2004/06 69p
Usage: Briefly described (p62, p65) Comments: Basal unit of the Newcastle Coal Measures. A medium-grained sandstone, well sorted in the middle. Thickness at type section: 20m. Geological Province: Sydney Basin.
REFID: 24158 Lindsay, G. , Herbert, C. 2002 Coal and conglomerate in the Newcastle Coal Measures - coeval facies or temporally unrelated? International Journal of Coal Geology 51 p169-184
Usage: Briefly described (p173 Fig.4) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Of the Tomago Coal Measures. Geological Province: Sydney Basin
REFID: 68004 Hill, M. , McEvilly, R. , Watkins, J. 2002 Mineral and petroleum resources and potential: NSW Western Regional Assessments: Brigalow Belt South Bioregion (Stage 2) Geological Survey of New South Wales 235pp
Usage: Briefly described (p23 Table 1.) Comments: Newcastle Coalfield. , Unit in Tomago Coal Measures. , Overlies Dempsey Formation. Is overlain by Newcastle Coal Measures.
REFID: 24157 Creech, M. 2002 Tuffaceous deposition in the Newcastle Coal Measures: challenging existing concepts of peat formation in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia International Journal of Coal Geology 51 p185-214
Usage: Briefly described (p187, p188 Tb.1, p209 Fig.19) Min age from reference: Permian Max age from reference: Permian Comments: Overlain by Newcastle Coal Measures. Underlain by Tomago Coal Measures. Geological Province: Sydney Basin
REFID: 22857 Scheibner, E. , Basden, H. (ed.) 1998 Geology of New South Wales - Synthesis. Volume 2 Geological Evolution. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 13(2) 666pp
Usage: Briefly described (p522 App.1 Tb.A1.9) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Max. thickness: 20m.
REFID: 22969 Maung, T.U. , Alder, D. , Shaw, R. , Hawley, S. 1997 Offshore Sydney Basin. Box 1 Bureau of Resource Sciences, Petroleum Prospectivity Bulletin
Usage: Briefly described ( Fig 3.1) Comments: Lachlan Fold Belt.
REFID: 22578 Herbert, C. 1995 Sequence stratigraphy of the Late Permian Coal Measures in the Sydney Basin Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 42(4) P391-405
Usage: Briefly described (Fig.5 p395, p400) Comments: Of the Newcastle Coal Measures.
REFID: 24121 Matthei, L.E. 1995 Soil Landscapes of the Newcastle 1:100 000 Sheet Department of Land and Water Conservation. Report. 320p
Usage: Briefly described (p4) Comments:
REFID: 61315 New South Wales Department of Mineral Resources 1995 Sydney Basin IN Stewart, R. and Adler, D. (eds.) "New South Wales Wales Petroleum Potential" - Bulletin New South Wales. Department of Mineral Resources. Coal and Petroleum Geology Branch. Bulletin 1 p163-188
Usage: Briefly described (Table SY1) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Geological Province: Sydney Basin/Newcastle area.
REFID: 43194 Tadros, N.Z. 1993 The Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Memoir (Geology) 12 649p
Usage: Briefly described (p129 Tb. 8.3) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Newcastle region, Sydney Basin.
REFID: 43017 Briggs, D.J.C. 1993 Time control in the Permian of the Sydney-Bowen Basin and the New England Orogen; In Findlay, Unrug, Banks, & Veevers (eds) Gondwana Eight. Assembly, evolution and dispersal. Proceedings of the Eighth Gondwana Symposium, Hobart, Tasmania, A A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam 1v p371-383
Usage: Briefly described (Fig.1,p372) Comments:
REFID: 38656 Diessel, C.F.K. 1982 Coal geology. Australian Mineral Foundation. Workshop Courses 200/82
Usage: Briefly described (Fig.1.5.13) Comments: P280
REFID: 45090 Mayne, S.J. , Nicholas, E. , Bigg-Wither, A.L. , Rasidi, J.S. , Raine, M.J. 1974 Geology the Sydney Basin - a review. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Australia. Bulletin 149 229pp
Usage: Briefly described (p63) Comments: Lithology, relationships, correlation, age
REFID: 33334 Stuntz, J. 1972 The surface distribution of the "Upper Coal Measures", Sydney Basin, New South Wales. IN Newcastle Conference, 1972. AusIMM 1v p1-9
Usage: Briefly described (p8) Comments: Permain
REFID: 34448 Rattigan, J. , McKenzie, P.J. 1969 History of sedimentation in the Sydney Basin - Hunter Valley. IN Packham G.H.(ed) - The geology of New South Wales. Geological Society of Australia. Journal 16(1) p426-434
Usage: Briefly described (p433) Comments: Permian
REFID: 34351 McKenzie, P.J. , Britten, R.A. 1969 The Sydney Basin - Permian of the Hunter Valley - Newcastle Coal Measures. IN Packham G.H.(ed) - The geology of New South Wales. Geological Society of Australia. Journal 16(1) p339-350
Usage: Briefly described (p341) Comments: Fig.5.13
REFID: 68493 Percival, I.G. , Meakin, N.S. , Sherwin, L. , Vanderlaan, T.A. , Flitcroft, P.A. 2012 Permian fossils and palaeoenvironments of the northern Sydney Basin, New South Wales Geological Survey of New South Wales. Quarterly Notes 138 1-23
Usage: Mentioned (p5 Fig.2) Min age from reference: Lopingian Max age from reference: Lopingian Comments: Barrier bar depositional environment. , Basal unit of the Newcastle Coal Measures. , Sandstone.
REFID: 68003 Barnes, R. , Dawson, M. , Spiller, F. 2002 Geology - Integration and upgrade: NSW Western Regional Assessments: Brigalow Belt South Bioregion (Stage 2). A project undertaken for the Resource and Conservation Assessment Council; NSW Western regional assessments Geological Survey of New South Wales WRA / 19 157pp
Usage: Mentioned (p41.) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments: Sydney Basin. A marine incursion interrupting coal formation.
REFID: 61612 Fielding, C.R. , Sliwa, R. , Holcombe, R.J. , Jones, A.T. 2001 A New palaeogeographic synthesis for the Bowen, Gunnedah and Sydney Basins of Eastern Australia IN Hill, K.C.and Bernecker, T. (eds) "Eastern Australasian Basins Symposium: a refocused energy perspective for the future" Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia. Special Publication 1v p269-278
Usage: Mentioned (p274, p277) Min age from reference: Late Permian Max age from reference: Late Permian Comments:
REFID: 23055 Boyd, R. , Little, M. , Herbert, C. 1998 A new look at the Newcastle Coal Measures - two contrasting approaches to their formation and sequence stratigraphy. Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin - Guidebook 32 47p
Usage: Mentioned (p1,22) Comments:
REFID: 42214 Gulson, B.L. , Diessel, C.F.K. , Mason, D.R. , Krogh, T.E. 1990 High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 37(4) p459-469
Usage: Mentioned (Table 1 P462) Comments:
REFID: 42182 McElroy, C.T. , Rose, G. 1990 Historical review of coal geology in New South Wales. IN Glasson K.R., Rattigan J.H. (eds.)- Geological aspects of the discovery of some important mineral deposits in Australia. AusIMM. Monograph Series 17 p245-316
Usage: Mentioned (p299) Comments:
REFID: 41479 Francis, C.L. , Summerell, S.J. 1988 The geotechnical investigation for the F3 freeway north of Palmers Road: Site geology and investigation techniques. Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin 22 p91-97
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.2) Comments:
REFID: 40971 Jones, J.G. , Conaghan, P.J. , McDonnell, K.L. 1987 Coal measures of an orogenic recess: Late Permian Sydney Basin, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 58(3/4) p203-219
Usage: Mentioned (p210) Comments:
REFID: 40321 Brakel, A.T. 1986 Global sea-level change as a method of correlating the Late Permian coal measures in the Sydney, Gunnedah, and Bowen Basins, eastern Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 10(1) p17-22
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.3) Comments:
REFID: 40330 Hunt, J.W. , Brakel, A.T. , Smyth, M. 1986 Origin and distribution of the Bayswater seam and correlatives in the Permian Sydney and Gunnedah Basins, Australia. Geological Society of Australia. Coal Geology Group. Journal 6 p59-75
Usage: Mentioned (p68) Comments:
REFID: 40166 Slansky, J.M. 1985 Geochemistry of high-temperature coal ashes and the sedimentary environment of the New South Wales coals, Australia. International Journal of Coal Geology 5(4) p339-376
Usage: Mentioned (p347) Comments: See also Table 1 and Fig.2
REFID: 40256 McMinn, A. 1985 Palynostratigraphy of the Middle Permian coal sequences of the Sydney Basin. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 32(3) p301-309
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.3) Comments:
REFID: 39609 Bowman, H.N. , Whitehouse, J. 1984 The Nobbys-Dudley-Yard Seam, Kilaben Bay, Newcastle area. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Quarterly Notes 56 p1-12
Usage: Mentioned (Table 1) Comments:
REFID: 39287 Herbert, C. 1980 Depositional development of the Sydney Basin. IN Herbert C., Helby R.(eds) - A guide to the Sydney Basin. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Bulletin 26 p11-52
Usage: Mentioned (p20) Comments: See also Fig.2.15
REFID: 39292 Diessel, C.F.K. 1980 Newcastle and Tomago Coal Measures. IN Herbert C.,Helby R.(eds) - A guide to the Sydney Basin. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Bulletin 26 p100-114
Usage: Mentioned (p101) Comments:
REFID: 39308 Herbert, C. , Helby, R. 1980 Part C - Excursion Guide. IN Herbert C.,Helby R.(eds) - A guide to the Sydney Basin. Geological Survey of New South Wales. Bulletin 26 p449-539
Usage: Mentioned (p481) Comments: See also Fig.23.4
REFID: 36042 Branagan, D. , Herbert, C. , Langford-Smith, T. 1979 The Sydney Basin. Science Press 1v
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.9) Comments: See also Fig.19.
REFID: 35319 Loughnan, F.C. , Ray, A.S. 1978 The Reid's Mistake Formation at Swansea Head, New South Wales Geological Society of Australia. Journal 25(8) p473-481
Usage: Mentioned (Table 1) Comments:
REFID: 33867 Williams, R.J. 1976 Hunter Valley: Permian coal measures geology. 25th International Geological Congress. Excursion Guide 11B
Usage: Mentioned (p11) Comments:
REFID: 37083 Crapp, C.E. , Nolan, R.C. 1975 Newcastle district. IN Traves D.M. and King D.(Eds) - Economic geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea - 2.Coal. AusIMM. Monograph Series 6 p163-175
Usage: Mentioned (p174) Comments:
REFID: 37087 Britten, R.A. 1975 Singleton-Muswellbrook district. IN Traves D.M. and King D.(Eds) - Economic geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea - 2.Coal. AusIMM. Monograph Series 6 p191-205
Usage: Mentioned (p198) Comments:
REFID: 31885 Loughnan, F.C. , Goldberry, R. 1972 Dawsonite and analcite in the Singleton Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. American Mineralogist 57 p1437-1447
Usage: Mentioned (p1439) Comments:
REFID: 29922 Branagan, D.F. 1972 Geology and coal mining in the Hunter Valley 1791-1861. Newcastle Public Library. Newcastle History Monographs 6
Usage: Mentioned (Appendix 4) Comments:
REFID: 29926 Branagan, D.F. , Johnson, M.W. 1970 Permian sedimentation in the Newcastle Coalfield, N.S.W. AusIMM. Proceedings 235 p1-36
Usage: Mentioned (Fig.3) Comments: Permian
REFID: 34465 Robinson, J.B. 1969 The Sydney Basin - Permian of the Hunter Valley. Tomago Coal Measures. IN Packham G.H.(ed) - The geology of New South Wales. Geological Society of Australia. Journal 16(1) p334-338
Usage: Mentioned (p337) Comments:
REFID: 43344 Branagan, D.F. , McElroy, C.T. , Packham, G.H. 1967 Field geology of New South Wales Science Press 191
Usage: Not recorded (p21,79,85) Max age from reference: Permian Comments:
REFID: 43447 Engel, B.A. 1966 Explanatory Notes, 1:250 000 geological series, Newcastle I56-2. 1st Edition Geological Survey of New South Wales
Usage: Not recorded (Tb 1,p23,24,diag.p26) Comments: Part of Newcastle Coal Measure
REFID: 43448 Hamilton, J.D. 1966 Petrography of some Permian sediments from the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales Royal Society of New South Wales. Journal and Proceedings 98(4) p221-237
Usage: Not recorded (p224,226,229,230,231) Max age from reference: Permian Comments: Unit of Lambton Subgroup (Newcastle Coal Measures). p235,236,Pl.1.
REFID: 43440 Nashar, B. 1964 The geology of the Hunter Valley (Possible coal seams to be indexed at a later date) Jacaranda Press p49
Usage: Not recorded (p32,35,49,51) Comments: Unit of Newcastle Coal Measures
REFID: 43477 Booker, F.W. 1960 Studies in Permian sedimentation in the Sydney Basin New South Wales. Department of Mines. Technical Report 5 pp10-62
Usage: Not recorded (p21,22,52,Pl.3) Max age from reference: Permian Comments:

Bibliographic references returned: 50 This data is subject to Geoscience Australia's disclaimer and copyright statements.